With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, and with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few.
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Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years. The rights to a secondary education were codified after , and countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical, mental and emotional growth.
It is at this very education level, particularly in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more firmly ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations. The seven levels are: . Within this system, Levels 1 and 2 — that is, primary education and lower secondary — together form basic education. Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone.
These level definitions were put together for statistical purposes, and to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions  and remain unchanged in the update. The start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists.
Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education thereby completing the delivery of basic skills and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. The end of lower secondary education often coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists.
Upper secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, which also is defined as completion of lower secondary education. The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is usually voluntary. More subjects may be dropped, and increased specialism occurs. Completion of upper secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education Level 4, non tertiary course , or direct entry into the workplace.
In the ISCED published a further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and upper secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, and the transition between two often would be when students were allowed some subject choice. Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, and the exact meaning of any of these varies. For further information about nomenclature, see the section below by country.
A form of education for adolescents became necessary in all societies that had an alphabet and engaged in commerce.
In Western Europe, formal secondary education can be traced back to the Athenian educational reforms of BC. Though their civilisation was eclipsed and they were enslaved, Hellenistic Athenian teachers were valued in the Roman system. The Roman and Hellenistic schools of rhetoric taught the seven liberal arts and sciences — grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy — which were regarded as a preparation for the study at a tertiary level of theology, law and medicine.
Boys would have been prepared to enter these schools by private tutors at home. Girls would have only received tuition at home. England provides a good case study. When Augustine of Canterbury brought Christianity there in , no schools existed. He needed trained priests to conduct church services and boys to sing in the choir.
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He had to create both the grammar schools that taught Latin, to enable the English to study for the priesthood, and song schools choir schools that trained the 'sons of gentlefolk' to sing in cathedral choirs. Bede in his Ecclesiastical history tells that the Canterbury school taught more than the 'intended reading and understanding of Latin', but 'the rules of metric, astronomy and the computus as well as the works of the saints' Even at this stage,there was tension, as the church was worried that knowledge of Latin would give the student access to non-Christian texts that it would not wish them to read.
Over the centuries leading to the renaissance and reformation the church was the main provider of secondary education. Various invasions and schisms within the controlling church challenged the focus of the schools, and the curriculum and language of instruction waxed and waned. Universities were founded that didn't just train students for the priesthood.
Whereas in mainland Europe the renaissance preceded the reformation , local conditions in England caused the reformation to come first. This stimulated the foundation of free Grammar schools- who searched for a less constrained curriculum. Colonialisation required navigation, mensuration, languages and administrative skills. After Gutenberg  had mastered moveable metal type printing and Tyndale had translated the Bible into English ,  Latin became a skill reserved for the catholic church and sons conservative nobility.
Schools started to be set up for the sons of merchants in Europe and the colonies too- for example Boston Latin Grammar School Comenius — ,  a Moravian protestant proposed a new model of education- where ideas were developed from the familiar to the theoretical rather than through repetition, where languages were taught in the vernacular and supported universal education.
In his Didactica Magna Great Didactic ,  he outlined a system of schools that is the exact counterpart of many western school systems: kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, six-form college, university. During the 18th century their social base widened and their curriculum developed, particularly in mathematics and the natural sciences. But this was not universal education and was self-selecting by wealth  The industrial revolution changed that.
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Industry required an educated workforce where all workers needed to have completed a basic education. The state had accepted responsibility for the basic education of the poor. The provision of school places remained inadequate, so an Order in Council dated 10 April created the Committee of the Privy Council on Education. There was considerable opposition to the idea that children of all classes should receive basic education, all the initiatives such as industrial schools and Sunday schools were initially a private or church initiative.
With the Great Exhibition of , it became clear just how far behind the English education system had fallen. Three reports were commissioned to examine the education of upper, middle and labouring class children. The Taunton Commission looked at the endowed grammar schools private and public. They found varying quality and a patchy geographical coverage, with two thirds of all towns not having any secondary school.
There was no clear conception of the purpose of secondary education. There were only thirteen girls' schools and their tuition was superficial, unorganised and unscientific. They recommended a system of first-grade schools targeted at a leaving age of 18 as preparation for upper and upper-middle class boys entering university, second-grade targeted at a leaving age of 16 for boys preparing for the army or the newer professions, and third-grade targeted at a leaving age of 14 for boys of small tenant farmers, small tradesmen, and superior artisans. This resulted in the Endowed Schools Act which advocated that girls should enjoy the same education as boys.
The Newcastle Commission inquired "into the state of public education in England and to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the extension of sound and cheap elementary instruction to all classes of the people". The school boards set up by the Elementary Education Act Forster Act and were stopped from providing secondary education by the Cockerton Judgement of The school leaving age at this time was Compulsory education was extended to These LEAs were allowed to build second-grade secondary schools that in the main became the future secondary modern schools.
In the " Regulations for Secondary Schools ", the Board of Education determined that secondary schools should offer a:. The Education Act Fisher Act extended compulsory full-time education to 14 , and recommended compulsory part-time education from 14— The Hadlow report, "Education the Adolescent" proposed that there should be a break point at eleven, establishing primary schools and secondary schools.
The United Nations , founded in , was committed to education for all but the definition was difficult to formulate. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights declared that elementary and fundamental education, which it didn't define, was a right to be enjoyed by all. The Education Act Butler Act made sweeping changes to the funding of state education using the tripartite system, but wasn't allowed to tackle private schools.
It introduced the GCE 'O'level at 16, and the 'A' at 18, but only raised the school leaving age until 15, making the exam inaccessible to the majority. In the school leaving was raised to The Education and Skills Act , when it came into force in the academic year, initially required participation in some form of education or training until the school year in which the child turned 17, followed by the age being raised to the young person's 18th birthday in Teachers are drawn from among the lowest achievers and have few performance incentives, and it shows in how class time is used.
This important book explores not only the basis for Brazil's progress, but also what it must do to bridge the remaining quality gap to a first-rate education for its children. It provides detailed recommendations for strengthening the performance of teachers, supporting children's early development, and reforming secondary education. In Brazil's highly decentralized basic education system, each level of government has an integral role to play. See Less -. All language versions and volumes across World Bank Repositories.
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