This book demonstrates which of these predictive tools gives the best results in different circumstances, including explaining which models can be best used in different parts of the world. Solar radiation and daylight models for the energy efficient design of buildings. Birkhauser Birkhauser is a publisher specialising in architecture, landscape architecture and design books.
Want access to British Standards? Find out more. Free to use BIM project management tool provides step-by-step help to define, manage and validate responsibility for information development and delivery at each stage of the asset life cycle in level 2 BIM projects. Although undesirable solar radiation is regulated via absorption in all of the thermochromic windows in this study, the windows whose solar absorption variation is less than their solar modulation ability are more likely to be efficient or smart, which demonstrates the importance of reflection.
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The best energy performance can be achieved at zero solar absorption variation, with an ECI very close to that of the perfect window. Although the regulation of long-wave thermal radiation properties is beyond this study's scope, their effect on energy performance should not be ignored. As our previous study concluded 30 , perfect windows could be achieved through the simultaneous control of solar spectrum properties and long-wave thermal properties. Through the discussion, we can reach the following conclusions. The energy-efficient performance is improved with the increase in the solar modulation ability the difference in solar transmittance between the transparent state and the opaque state and the decrease in the solar absorption variation the difference in the solar absorptivity between the transparent state and the opaque state.
In addition, the solar absorption variation should be near zero. For a particular thermochromic material, its specific energy-efficient performance can be estimated through the color contours. This modeling software was compiled based on a non-steady-state heat transfer model. In the software, the building envelope and the indoor and outdoor air were divided into hundreds of nodes. For each node, the energy conservation equation was based on the implicit difference method.
The equations for all of the nodes in the temperature field formed a matrix. The temperature field was determined by solving the matrix via the Gauss—Seidel iteration method. He considered a curve-shaped building and been most frequently studied . Building life cycle. Orientation and shape wall, and thus, on the orientation angle of the building . For this purpose, they used three models envelope . It was deter- niques. As a general rule, the longest wall sections should be Florides et al.
However, orientation can also be tation and shape. In a rectangular and the annual energy demand. According to the authors, the eastern ori- 3.
Characteristics of surface solar radiation in Sino-Singapore Eco-city
Orientation and solar radiation received entation of the building surface was what most contributed to an increase in the heating energy demand. Gupta and Ralegaonkar  optimized the orientation of a building for various shape factors with the objective of minimizing 3. Orientation and ground plan the solar radiation received in summer and maximizing it in the winter. The total energy gained by this radiation was calculated by Morrissey et al.
This was done by using different shape values and surface, and total window surface. The authors concluded that the optimal orientation was generally when the longest wall sections were oriented toward the north and south. Building orientation and energy demand Chwiduk et al. For The study of the optimal orientation of a building evidently this purpose, they used two radiation models: i a diffuse isotropic increases energy saving . Table 2 shows the energy saving in sky model ; ii an anisotropic sky model .
The receive the maximum possible solar radiation in the winter and the greatest energy saving was obtained when the longest walls were minimum possible radiation in the summer. This procedure Shaviv  studied the orientation of the glazing surface of a is especially useful for the installation of solar panels. It can be used building, and obtained the results shown in Table 3.
She concluded to calculate the energy that they receive, and consequently, their that in order to obtain maximum energy saving, the main glaz- effectiveness. Heating energy saving, depending on shape factor and orientation . If this is not possible, the building should face envelope can have a positive impact on certain energy require- southeast. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the building as a whole .
Heat transfer formulas: optimization of the limit U value dows and the operation period of the heating system are the factors that have the greatest impact on the total energy consump- Design parameters that affect indoor thermal comfort and tion of the building . It is frequent for authorities to establish a maximum value of U in order to control Table 2 heat loss in buildings and guarantee the comfort of the occupants.
Energy saving obtained, based on the orientation of a rectangular building . They formulated Eq. An overly thick insulation layer resulted in an unnec- The effectiveness of actions to improve the thermal performance essarily high initial cost that was not compensated by the fuel of the envelope depends on building type and use. It has been reduction.
These authors found that the optimal insulation thickness considerably reduced the energy demand, especially for heating maintained a linear relation with the PWF. In contrast, this procedure is not effective in buildings whose In the study by Lollini et al. The improvement in the U value of was performed by carrying out a three-level analysis: energy, econ- these buildings does not involve a reduction in outside heating gain, omy, and environment. The calculations were performed with whereas an action affecting the type of glazing can improve thermal EC simulation software, created to evaluate the energy and performance.
They also used the PWF of the insulation 4. Building insulation and economic analysis material, which represents the cost difference between the initial investment in additional insulation in reference to the estimated Jinghua et al.
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By using a combined ing Eq. In contrast, if the cooling energy consumption is considered sepa- Based on this equation, the heat transfer value U of the material rately, the insulation placed within the wall was found to consume can be optimized. In this regard, there are two methods improvement in the heating performance of buildings.
The solar heat gain through single glazing of standard 3 mm clear glass, optimal insulation level chosen by the authors was the level that as shown in Eq. Environmental study of the building envelope .
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Emergy mer and solar penetration in winter into energy savings in the was evaluated by means of the procedure created by Odum , in equipment. They used Eq. If these energy gains are transformed into economic costs, in terms of the The study was performed for cold, warm, and hot climate con- price of fuel used for the heating and cooling systems, the economic ditions.
In terms of natural resources, the emergetic analysis assigned a more important role to 5. Effectiveness of shading devices regions with a hot and warm climate. Control of shading is necessary in order to assure thermal and fuels. Passive shading systems favor Chel and Tiwari [36,37] studied the environmental impact of a reduction of the heat gained by the building, which means that a mud house by estimating the thermal performance, embodied cooling systems are not operated as frequently. Nonetheless, they energy, energy payback time, CO2 emission mitigation potential have the drawback of reducing daylight availability .
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This generates energy savings ing potential. The heat generated in the building . As the use of solar impact. Effect of overhang on incident radiation through a window. They had them operate alternatively and on buildings as a consequence of their proximity to other construc- calculated the light transmitted into the room by applying Eq. Overhangs avoid the entry of direct radiation through the win- dow at certain times of the day. This has the advantage of regulating the entry of excessive heat and daylight as shown in Fig. Roller shades and overhang Florides et al.
They found that a longer horizontal overhang overhang, is that they are often designed to remain in one posi- reduced the cooling demand and increased the heating demand. This evidently favors energy saving in certain situations, while Robert and Jones  measured the ratio between overhang hampering it in others.
Related Solar Radiation and Daylight Models: For the Energy Efficient Design of Buildings
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